Focusing on the largest U.S. and European-born populations, United States census records from 1920 and 1940 show that the further a group's cultural, linguistic and religious norms differed from that of the native population's Massachusetts born, English-speaking, Protestantism, in early twentieth century Pittsfield, Massachusetts, the more they clustered together within one of the city's seven wards.
These records have been studied in two different ways. The first is through focusing on population disbursement trends within the city in correlation to individual birthplace. Data shows that a stratigraphic scale emerges, in which certain population groups were more evenly disbursed or clustered together in Pittsfield depending on how far their culture deviated from that of the native Massachusettsers. Using Massachusetts-born as a control group, we can see that they were nearly disbursed throughout Pittsfield in 1920 and 1940. Moving down the scale, New Yorkers and non-MA/NY U.S. born were more clustered together in 1920 than MA-born individuals, but trended towards a more even disbursement by 1940.
Next, this study investigated foreign-born groups that hailed from European countries with similar linguistic and/or religious practices to that of the native population. These included the English, Irish, Scottish, Germans, and Swedes. The Irish, who were also the largest immigrant group in Pittsfield throughout the 19th century, were nearly evenly disbursed throughout the city. The English and Germans clustered within each respective group in 1920, but became more disbursed by 1940. It was only the Swedes who continued to cluster together at a similar rate, between 1920 and 1940, and the Scottish who clustered at a higher percentage by 1940. Both of these ethnic groups were the smallest of all English-speaking and/or Protestant immigrant groups. Also, according to census data, the Swedes had no presence in Pittsfield throughout the late 19th century. Total group size and, for the Swedes, the minimal time they had been in Pittsfield when the 1920 and 1940 censuses were taken, had a factor in their disbursement trends.
The last set of groups to be studied were immigrants from non-English, Catholic countries. The largest European-born groups in Pittsfield in 1920 and 1940 were the Austrians, French, Italians and Poles. These four ethnic groups clustered together far more than any of those mentioned above. The Scottish-born were the most clustered together, at 27.5% in 1940, of any English-speaking and/or Protestant group. Of all non-English, Catholic groups, over forty percent of each group was living within a single ward. Furthermore, the largest populations of Austrians, French and Poles were all living in Ward 1 in 1920, and moved to Ward 7 in 1940. This move was carried out, because Ward 7 was the least populated with English-speaking and/or Protestant groups. The Italians were able to cluster into Ward 3, because their total population was much larger than any other non-English, Catholics. Due to their large size, the Italians were able to form a community outside of Ward 1 in 1920 and Ward 7 by 1940.
The second analysis carried out was of the 'Next Generation,' or individuals born in the United States with either native or foreign born parents. For this study, only 'Next Generation' individuals with parents from the same location has thus far been analyzed. For this section of the study, groups were partitioned into two age groups: 'All Ages,' and '18 and Older.' A very similar stratigraphic scale emerged when studying the 'Nxxt Generation' compared to the native and foreign-born. U.S.-born with MA-born parents were the most evenly disbursed 'Next Generation' throughout the city. They were then followed by those with New York parents and individuals with non-MA/NY U.S. born parents.
Of the English-speaking and/or Protestant groups, the 'Next Generation' Irish were the most evenly disbursed. Of the English, Scottish, Germans, and Swedes, 'Next Generation' adults continued to cluster together from 1920 to 1940, but were more evenly disbursed than culturally non-English, Catholics.
In 1920, 'Next Generation' Austrian, French, Italian and Polish adults clustered together at lower rates than their foreign-born counterparts. By 1940, this 'Next Generation' trend towards integration reversed. 'Next Generation' culturally non-English, Catholics not only clustered together at percentage rates much higher than any other category, but moved into the same wards as their foreign-born counterparts. This was caused by immigration restrictions and anti-immigration sentiment that permeated throughout American society at this time.